Sunday, December 08, 2019

The November 2019 Biblical Studies Carnival is up at Theology Pathfinder. I'd like to highlight the entries that I found the most helpful for my own purposes.

Most edifying: 

November 2019 saw the release of the new book God's Relational Presence: The Cohesive Center of Biblical Theology (Duvall and Hays). I haven't read it yet; however if the title of the work is also its central thesis, then this work has the potential to direct our attention back to the one thing needful.

Last month also saw the release of Theology as a Way of Life (Neder), which puts theology back in touch with its roots: "Know the Lord", as knowledge becomes love.

Other matters of interest: 

Roger Olson posts a thought-piece, "Can God Change the Past?" It seems to me that, if He wanted to, He'd have done it already. Roger Olson's thoughts run more toward the implications of his premise for the question of open theism.

Justin Taylor at The Gospel Coalition reviews the new book from InterVarsity Press, Myths and Mistakes in New Testament Textual Criticism.

Enjoy the Carnival!

Sunday, December 01, 2019

Advent: Season of Hope

Few things in life are as dark as losing hope. Without hope, our actions seem pointless and our motivation fades. Trying harder can cover for awhile, but it's not the same as hope. Trying to be optimistic can help for a time, but trying to look on the bright side is not the same as hope. Hope is the anticipation of something that will bring relief or meaning or light, will bring some kind of blessing or benefit.

We try to keep hope in front of our eyes. Many people keep photos of loved ones as placeholders until they see them again. Some people keep countdown clocks showing the number of days til a big event. Here in advent, we look forward to Christmas. We each have our own ways. We may keep an eye on the calendar, or select a thoughtful gift for a loved one, or decorate a tree, or plan a celebration, or hang Christmas lighting. The beauty and anticipation of Christmas are just as legitimate as keeping a photo of a loved one. When we are motivated by hope, the actions make hope an active part of our lives.

Christmas reminds us of life, new birth, new beginnings. When Christ was born, we could see the beginning of the new creation before our eyes. God who makes all things new has included us in his plans for blessing. When he creates a new heaven and a new earth, he will not neglect to renew our hearts as well. When light comes to the world, it comes for us into our own minds as well. Peace and joy may seem like isolated points of brightness struggling against the dark for now, but it will not be that way forever. Christ is born as the king, and the songs that the angels sang are just the beginning. Those angels are waiting to sing those songs again, not only to a handful of shepherds but to all of us at the fulfillment of days. Joy will become the norm. Peace will become the standard.

It is the renewal of all things when his kingdom comes. In Christ, we have reason to hope.

Sunday, November 24, 2019

Kingdom of Forgiveness

Jesus prayed: "Father, forgive them, for they do not know what they're doing." He prayed this at the beginning of his execution, which was a long, drawn-out ordeal.

We Christians often reflect on Jesus' death and its role in our forgiveness. We may recall what he said to one of the criminals dying beside him: "Today you will be with me in paradise." In sermons, we are encouraged to think of ourselves as the criminal on the cross, or as the betrayer like Judas Iscariot, or like Barabbas as the one whose guilt he bore while we went free.

Today, instead of focusing on ourselves as the criminal who was caught, or the one who got away,  maybe we can also see ourselves as the objects of Jesus' prayer for mercy: "Father, forgive them, for they do not know what they're doing." Maybe we can see other people alongside us -- who need forgiveness as much as we do -- and see them too as the objects of Jesus' prayer: "Father, forgive them, for they do not know what they're doing."

Today, we can rest in Jesus' prayer: his prayer is for our forgiveness.

(Based on the lectionary reading for today, Christ the King Sunday.)

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Holiday Charity Drives -- The Good, the Bad, and the Common Ground

'Tis the  season. It's not quite Thanksgiving yet, but the commercial radio stations have begun to play Christmas music, the stores have begun to stock Christmas decorations -- and the charities are starting to solicit donations from people who are in the holiday spirit of generosity. But am I the only one disturbed by the tone?

Once I had a nominal facebook friend try to shame everyone on his friends list into donating to his then-favorite charity in support homeless gay teens. If anyone didn't support that cause with a donation, it was implied that they were part of the problem. I've had other friends request contributions to other incredibly-specific-social-problem charities for their birthdays. There is often an element of trafficking in guilt, shame, or victimhood to charity requests, with the worst of them coming across like an excerpt from the comically-insane points system in The Good Place. Goodwill is not manipulative, so why are so many charity requests?

The thing is, as much as I may pray for anyone who requests my help, whether homeless gay teens or people plagued by suicidal thoughts, I tend to help where self or friends or family have been hurt. I'm more likely to volunteer at 12-step events or donate clothing to homeless veterans' charities or contribute to certain medical charities.

We help because we care. But we cannot assume that people who do not help our cause do not care, or are bad people. I may not donate to their cause; they may not donate to mine either. I think many people are generous where they themselves have felt the pain or loss and can relate. If each person shows their generosity in the place where they feel the need, then each group will receive generosity in proportion to the number of people affected. The size of the outreach keeps scale with the size of the need.

For myself, may I pray for all in need. May I cheerfully help where I feel called to help. And may we support each other on our separate journeys with goodwill.

Sunday, November 10, 2019

God's reasons for creating: Insight for parenting

"Why did God create the world?" has been an often-asked question. While some will say we do not know why God created, there is a uniform agreement that God did not create out of need. One traditional answer from Christians is that creation comes from an overabundance of God's love and goodness. Beyond the armchair arguments of theologians, the answer has implications for everyday life. Is God's relationship to us unknown, or based on his need, or based on his generosity and grace? His reasons for creating us form the basis for the whole relationship with us. So for us, it matters very much whether our existence is based on God's overflowing love and goodness.

Scripture encourages us to view God as the model for earthly parenting. And that is where it connects to our own relationships with our children. When we bring new life into the world, why do we have children? Our reasons affect our relationship with our children.

Of course there are happy couples who want children. Then there are couples who have children to try to save their marriage. There are women who have "atonement babies" to try to recoup their emotional losses and family losses after an abortion. There are people who have children to fill the voids in their lives. There are people who have a sense of duty or obligation about having children. There are couples who simply find themselves expecting a child without serious forethought on the matter.

From all these reasons why a parent might have a child, none of them would prevent a parent from loving a child. But some motives would put the relationship on hazardous ground. Some reasons would risk turning the relationship into something about meeting the parent's needs rather than the child's.

I do not write to cause any anxiety or distress, but simply to raise awareness. The more we can meet our own needs, the more overflow of grace we will have for our children.

Sunday, November 03, 2019

Self-love and love of neighbor

Jesus taught that the command, "Love your neighbor as yourself" was of great importance among the commands of the Torah, second only to the love of God. And in that command, the love of neighbor has a touchstone: love of self.

Let's look at Jesus' parable of the sheep and the goats with an eye to recognizing ways to show love to self and others:

I was hungry, and you fed me. I was thirsty and you gave me a drink.
We begin to love people -- ourselves and others -- in meeting the basic needs of sustaining life: food and drink. If we are hungry, we feed ourselves. If we are unable to feed ourselves, we do not neglect ourselves but let others know our need. If we see those who are unable to feed themselves, we provide for them in the way we would want others to provide for us. 

I was a stranger and you welcomed me. 
We recognize our basic need for belonging and for welcome. From this we learn not to isolate ourselves or disregard the company of others. While love of our neighbor may begin with physical needs, it does not end there. We recognize the positive good of hospitality and the value of building fellowship. 

I was naked and you clothed me. 
We recognize the distinctly human need of clothing. From clothing we can infer not only covering, but the need for cleanliness and for dignity. 

I was sick and in prison and you visited me. 
Here we recognize care and compassion in times of distress. Someone who visits the sick gives companionship and relieves their suffering and distress as they are able. It follows that self-care includes a positive duty to care for ourselves when sick or injured, and that love will seek to ease the discomfort of the sick. As for those in prison, we are called to be there even for the wrongdoer. It is an act of mercy and reconciliation. If we are to visit those in prison, how much more should we visit those who are isolated for smaller offenses. This teaching reminds us to remember both justice and mercy in lesser cases where a person did wrong but may not be in prison. 

Sunday, October 27, 2019

Zechariah the priest's literacy, and the name of John the Baptist

There has been some interest in recent years over literacy in ancient Judaism. Some advocate the view that the ability to read or write was incredibly rare; others advocate the view that the ability to read at least short passages was fairly common for men. In general, though, both sides agree that certain people in ancient Judaism were certainly literate, such as the priestly class.

In Luke's gospel we are told of a priest named Zechariah, father of John the Baptist. For those not familiar with Luke's account: when his son was named, Zechariah had been unable to speak for some months. His wife Elizabeth had said the son's name would be John (Luke 1:60), but the others present for the circumcision expected the child to be named Zechariah like his father. So Zechariah motioned for a writing tablet and wrote "His name is John," and the people present for the circumcision marveled at that. Luke does not record whether this was a home circumcision or took place in a synagogue; the information I've found so far would indicate those were common places for a circumcision in that era.

So much for the account we have. Based on it, it's reasonably certain that Zechariah could read and write. Based on his membership in the priesthood, we would expect that Zechariah was literate. There are a few implications to consider: When he motioned for a writing tablet and there was one handy, it stands to reason that it was not too uncommon for someone literate to be present. When he wrote on the tablet and someone else read it, it follows that there was at least one other person present who could read. Zechariah was not the only literate person present at the circumcision. We do not have information on specifically how many people gathered for the circumcision of Zechariah's son or how many of them were able to read it for themselves, so the presence of at least one more literate person does not necessarily help us to estimate the percentage of people who were literate.

Next, consider the fact that Elizabeth already knew Zechariah's wishes on naming their son. How would Zechariah have passed this information to Elizabeth since he could not speak? We can consider the possibility that he might have written his wishes and had someone else read it to Elizabeth -- and yet the other people present at the circumcision, including any literate ones, had not previously known Zechariah's wishes in the way that his wife Elizabeth had. We must at least consider the possibility that Elizabeth could read. She had been the wife of a priest for long years, married to a man engaged in studying the Jewish Scriptures. And it is not the first time we'd have known of Jewish women who were literate; there were various mentions of literate women in the Talmud, such as in the discussions of whether women and minors were eligible to read the Torah portion of the Scripture readings at public worship services.

When we look at ancient literacy, there is a tendency to all-or-nothing thinking. It is common for people to assume that if someone was not literate by modern industrial standards, then instead they were so wholly illiterate that they could not decipher even a short phrase such as "His name is John". That kind of all-or-nothing thinking is, most of all, inaccurate in its disregard for what is practical. Literacy is a spectrum starting from knowing the letters of their alphabet, building up to being able to recognize some words and sound out others, all the way to more fluent literacy that involved both reading longer passages and writing.

We know Zechariah, as a priest, was literate. Based on a brief glimpse into the life of this literate man in ancient times, we know that among his everyday companions he was not alone in his literacy.

Sunday, October 20, 2019

Prayers on the themes of peace and love

Today I find myself in search of prayers on the topics of peace and love. I've adapted the first two below from St Therese of Lisieux based on existing English translations; the third I've translated/adapted from St Teresa of Avila ("Nada te turbe").
 
Lord, we launch out from our hearts toward You.
Today, whether we find ourselves in the heights of joy or the ruts of despair,
We are grateful for Your love. 


Lord, I have found my place in the world,
and that place is love.
Beacon Light of love, I know how to reach you.
Grant me the calm and serene peace of the navigator
Who sees the lighthouse that will lead home.

Let nothing disturb me
Let nothing frighten me
Those things will all pass
My Savior remains

Sunday, October 13, 2019

"You shall love the Lord your God"

"You shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, and with all your soul, and with all your mind, and with all your strength." (Mark 12:30, from Deuteronomy 6:5, see also Luke 10:27). 

In my reading I have come across a teaching attributed to Maimonides, that the command to love God can be acted on by meditating on the infinite love of God towards us:
I have loved you with an everlasting love. (Jeremiah 31:3)

In time, as we become more aware of God's love, our own love for God awakens. And so "You shall love the Lord your God" is not only a command, it is also a promise. Yes, that has been said of other commandments before. This, too, God will add to us.

Sunday, October 06, 2019

A is for Apple, Alef Beth is for Learn Wisdom

In the course of some research the other night, I came across an entry in the Talmud (Shabbath 104a) discussing some of the instructions, lessons, and memory aids that were used in teaching the Hebrew alphabet back in the days of classical Judaism. Seeing that it was both instructive and good-natured, I wanted to reproduce it here as an alphabet chart:

Memory and instruction
Names of letters
Hebrew letters (right to left)
Learn wisdom (alef binah)
Alef, Beth
אב
Show kindness to the poor (Gemol Dallim)

Why is the foot of the Gimmel stretched toward the Daleth? Because it is fitting for the benevolent to run after the poor.
And why is the roof of the Daleth stretched out toward the Gimmel?
Because he (the poor) must make himself available to him.
And why is the face of the Daleth turned away from the Gimmel?
Because he must give to him in secret, lest he be ashamed of him.
Gimmel, Daleth
גד
That is the Name of the Holy One, blessed be He
He, Waw
הו
If you do this, the Holy One, blessed be He, will sustain (Zan) you, be gracious (Hen) to you, show goodness (metib) to you, give you an inheritance (Yerushah), and bind a crown (Kether) on you in the world to come.
Zayyin, Heth, Teth, Yod, Kaf, Lamed
זחטיכל
The open Mem and the closed Mem are open teaching (Ma'amar) and closed (esoteric) teaching.
open Mem, closed Mem (final Mem)
מם
The bent Nun and the straight Nun: the faithful (Ne'eman) if bent (humble), will be the faithful, straightened.
bent Nun, straight Nun (final Nun)
 נן
Samek, ‘ayyin: support (Semak) the poor (‘aniyyim).
Another interpretation: devise (‘aseh) mnemonics (Simanin) in the Torah and so acquire it.
Samek, ‘ayyin
סע
The bent pe and the straight pe are an open mouth [peh], a closed mouth.
bent Pe and straight Pe (final Pe)
פף
A bent zadde and a straight zadde: the righteous (zaddik) is bent; the righteous is straightened.

But that is identical with the faithful bent, the faithful straightened? The Writ added humility to his humility; so the Torah was given under great submissiveness.
bent Zadde and straight Zadde
צץ
Kuf is for Kadosh (holy); Resh for Rasha’ (wicked):

Why is the face of the Kuf averted from, the Resh? The Holy One, blessed be He, said: I cannot look at the wicked. And why is the crown of the Kuf turned toward the Resh? The Holy One, blessed be He, saith: If he repents, I will bind a crown on him like Mine. And why is the foot of the Kuf suspended? If he repents, he can enter and be brought in through this.

This supports Resh Lakish, for Resh Lakish said: What is meant by, "Surely he scorns the scorners, But he gives grace unto the lowly?" If one comes to defile himself, he is given an opening; if one comes to cleanse himself, he is helped.
Kuf, Resh
קר
SHin is for SHeker (falsehood); Taw for emeth (truth):

Why are the letters of Sheker close together, while those of ‘emeth are far apart? Falsehood is frequent, truth is rare.

And why does falsehood stand on one foot, while truth has a brick-like foundation? Truth can stand, falsehood cannot stand.

SHin, Taw
שת
 
I'm curious how far back we could trace the tradition of teachers making alphabet charts, games, or memory aids. After the custom of teachers everywhere, they do not lose the opportunity to have lessons within lessons, where the examples given are on another subject. Learning letters is generally a preparation for other things that will be learned after reading is mastered. Here the teachers lay the groundwork for what they want the students to learn next. While calling attention to the shapes of the letters, they emphasize learning wisdom, God's benevolence, human benevolence, humility, and truth.

If anyone has any use for this, I'm tagging this individual post as Creative Commons. Please bear in mind that the Talmud and its English edition are not mine (Soncino/Judaica Press, though I've modernized it somewhat). It's possible that there have been enough changes (between modernizing and simplifying the language, and original work added in the formatting) that this may possibly be considered a new work; users are encouraged to check into that as needed.

Tuesday, October 01, 2019

Biblical Studies Carnival #164

Biblical Studies Carnival #164 is up at Reading Acts. For the first time I have participated in the carnival. The host was welcoming and receptive; I'd encourage all the bibliobloggers who are not submitting entries to the carnival to consider participating in the future. The current month's host, Philip Long, writes a blog that looks interesting.

Sunday, September 29, 2019

A Study of Hebrew or Aramaic Loan-Words: 4 Canonical Gospels and 8 Non-Canonical Gospels

This post concludes the recent series studying Hebrew and Aramaic loan-words in various documents that are commonly referred to as gospels, whether inside or outside the New Testament. I approach the study of these documents as an exercise in data analysis, employing computerized methodology whenever possible to give the most objective results that I can manage.

Use of Hebrew or Aramaic Loan Words

The chart below summarizes the total occurrences of Hebrew or Aramaic loan words that I was able to discover in these gospels. Within that total count, there is also a breakdown of how often such words were used in phrases attributed to Jesus by the author ("red letter" usage, based on the typographical convention of some texts that use red letters to show Jesus' words). Currently, full phrases such as Jesus' cry from the cross are counted as a single use in this chart.


The results range from the Gospel of Mary on the low end, where I was not able to find any Hebrew or Aramaic usage in the surviving text, to the Gospel of John on the high end. In the break-down of red-letter usage, most of the texts studied did not contain any Hebrew or Aramaic words attributed to Jesus. The exceptions -- the ones which preserve Hebrew or Aramaic words within sayings attributed to Jesus -- are the four canonical gospels of Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John, plus the Coptic Gospel of Thomas.

Some of the differences in the number of words may be attributable to the difference in lengths of the documents, and a useful follow-up would be to evaluate the relative frequency of the words (as opposed to simple counts) to control for the length of the documents. Again, some of the differences in the number of "red letter" occurrences may be due to either the shortness of the documents, or the relative or complete lack of sayings attributed to Jesus in some of the documents, and a supplemental review of the relative frequency would be useful.

Range of Vocabulary

This second chart shows the number of distinct words or sayings from those languages contained in each document.


The results range again from the Gospel of Mary on the low end, where I was not able to find any Hebrew or Aramaic usage in the surviving text, to the Gospel of Mark on the high end with the highest number of unique and distinct words. Again, whole phrases in the underlying languages (one such phrase in Matthew, two phrases in Mark) are currently counted as single items. For methodology, it would ultimately be cleaner to break those phrases into their underlying words, as an open item for further work.

Points of Interest

Comparing the charts to each other brings out some interesting points about individual documents:
  • The Gospel of John may have had the most individual occurrences of these words, but that was boosted the usage of "Amen" -- that is, by how often the words in question were, "Truly, truly I tell you". When counting distinct words and range of vocabulary, Mark has the widest range -- even here when currently counting the full phrases found in Mark as single items rather than breaking them into their underlying vocabulary.
  • The Gospel of the Savior follows a pattern not too different from the Gospel of John, in that the use of the word "Amen" constituted a high percentage of the words in question. In the case of the Gospel of the Savior, this is mostly attributed to a single prayer-like section where "Amen" is given as a response 23 times in the reconstructed text. The repeated response of "Amen" accounts for all but one of the appearances of a Hebrew or Aramaic word in that text.
  • The Gospel of Philip may have only had 6 total words in Hebrew or Aramaic, but only "Sabbath" was repeated more than one time causing it to have a relatively high range of different vocabulary words. This reflects the unique vocabulary found in the Gospel of Philip, with its usage of words such as Echmoth and Echamoth which do not appear in any of the other documents referenced so far.
References - Links to Underlying Word Studies
The summary charts are based directly on totals from the material in the linked documents.

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

Non-Gnostic Gospels Outside the New Testament: Preserved Hebrew or Aramaic Loan-Words

The series continues with a review of documents sometimes called gospels outside the Bible, here focusing on gospels that are not classified as Gnostic. Again it bears mentioning that the study aids and resources (and reference systems) aren't as fully developed for these are for the canonical Christian gospels. Even though I have had the help of interlinear texts in some cases, there is an over-reliance on translations.

The Gospel of the Savior 

Cherubim: 1x
38 [The angels] and the archangels [bowed down] on [their faces. 39 The] cherubim [...]... 
Amen [manuscript damaged, possibly 23x on a likely reconstruction]
He said, "Amen!" 
Infancy Gospel of Thomas 

Amen: 1x
11:3 And when they departed into the city Joseph told it to Mary, and she when she heard and saw the wonderful mighty works of her son rejoiced, glorifying him with the Father and the Holy Spirit now and for ever and world without end. Amen
Sabbath: 2x
3:1 Now Jesus made of that clay twelve sparrows: and it was the Sabbath day. And a child ran and told Joseph, saying: Behold, your child plays about the brook, and has made sparrows of the clay, which is not lawful.
3:2 
Gospel of Peter

Sabbath: 3x
5 And Herod said: 'Brother Pilate, even if no one had requested him, we would have buried him, since indeed Sabbath is dawning. For in the Law it has been written: The sun is not to set on one put to death.'
27
34 
Proto-Evangelium of James

Amen: 3x without the colophon, or 4x including the colophon
6 And all the people said: So be it, so be it, amen.
7
24
Colophon
Summary

Again, the documents in this group have relatively few different loan-words, often only "Amen" or "Sabbath". Outside of these two particular words, so far I have discovered only one other use of such loan-words in these texts, a reference to cherubim in the Gospel of the Savior. For those keeping track of unique words, this is the first time that cherub or cherubim has come to our attention in this series. It is used in the New Testament book of Hebrews in its Greek form, and the Hebrew scriptures contain a number of reference, but the New Testament gospels make no reference specifically to cherubim.

Another noteworthy feature is the high incidence of the word "Amen" in the Gospel of the Savior. This tracks to a section that has the format of many liturgical prayers, with "Amen" being the response.

Sunday, September 22, 2019

Gnostic Gospels: Preserved Hebrew or Aramaic loan-words

This series continues with one usual disclaimer and one unusual one.

First the standard disclaimer that not everyone finds the "gnostic" designation helpful or well-defined, and there is some legitimate debate about which writings qualify under that heading.

Then the more unusual disclaimer: here the relative lack of study tools for these writings leads me to a higher reliance on the translators. I've done what I can to minimize the risk of missing something: I've found interlinear versions of some of these gospels on-line (that is: versions where the original language is printed with matching words in my own native language between the lines so I can check the original words). I've consulted Coptic-language lexicons and various other Coptic-language resources on-line when the surviving text has come to us in Coptic, and there's enough overlap between Coptic and Greek that the Coptic script is not wholly unfamiliar to me. Still I've had to rely more heavily on the quality of the translations here than I would with the writings from the Bible, especially for writings where I did not gain access to an interlinear version. There is no convenient way to cross-check my results by searching a Strong's concordance here. So with that disclaimer about the over-reliance on translations, here is what I can determine about the use of Hebrew or Aramaic loan-words in the Gnostic gospels.

Coptic Gospel of Thomas

Sabbath (1 saying, 2 instances)
27 "If you do not fast as regards the world, you will not find the kingdom. If you do not observe the Sabbath as a Sabbath, you will not see the father."

Gospel of Truth

Sabbath (1 saying, 2 instances)
He labored even on the Sabbath for the sheep which he found fallen into the pit. He saved the life of that sheep, bringing it up from the pit in order that you may understand fully what that Sabbath is, you who possess full understanding. 

Gospel of Mary

n/a - I did not locate any Hebrew or Aramaic loan-words in the Gospel of Mary.


Gospel of Philip

A brief note on words included: I've also allowed words from the Syriac dialect of Aramaic here, since in some cases I'm sure that we'd want to include them, and in any case I'd rather include the doubtful ones than miss something.

Sabbath: 1x
but in the other Sabbath […] it's fruitless.
Messiah: 2 passages, 3 instances
But the name "Christ" in Syriac is "Messiah," in Greek "Christ," and all the others have it according to their own language
The apostles before us called (him) "Jesus the Nazarene Messiah," that is, "Jesus the Nazarene Christ." The last name is "Christ," the first is "Jesus," the middle one is "the Nazarene." "Messiah" has two meanings: both "Christ" and "the measured." "Jesus" in Hebrew is "the redemption." "Nazara" is "the truth."
Note: I'm not counting "Nazara" as a loan-word since the text neither mentions the older languages nor comes up with a recognizably-on-topic translation for it from those languages. Though the handling of the name Jesus in this passage calls me to mention to the readers the rules which I have used to classify proper names in this survey. I have generally not credited proper names as loan-words on usage alone since that would obligate us to duplicate much of the work on proper names; I have only included them in the loan-word survey when the passage also calls attention to the translation of the name. However, in the case of the name Jesus, for this survey I have not included this or a passage in the Gospel of Luke that is similar because the name "Jesus" is single most common word in a number of the documents being studied (particularly within the New Testament), and could considerably skew the search for loan-words if someone searched for all uses of the name Jesus.

Pharisatha (Syriac)
The Eucharist is Jesus, because in Syriac he's called "Pharisatha," that is, "the one who's spread out," because Jesus came to crucify the world.
Echmoth (derived from Hebrew word for wisdom)
Echamoth is one thing and Echmoth another. Echamoth is simply Wisdom, but Echmoth is the Wisdom of Death, which knows death. This is called "the little Wisdom."
Echamoth (derived from and/or paralleling the words for wisdom and death)
Echamoth is one thing and Echmoth another. Echamoth is simply Wisdom, but Echmoth is the Wisdom of Death, which knows death. This is called "the little Wisdom."

Summary

The documents here do not all have the same characteristics. For the most part, loan-words from Hebrew or Aramaic are few or non-existent; I did not discover any such loan-words in the Gospel of Mary, while in the Gospel of Thomas and the Gospel of Truth I discovered only one passage each mentioning the sabbath. So the majority of texts that we're considering here show relatively little by way of Hebrew or Aramaic roots, without much breadth or depth of usage -- or none, outside the idea of a sabbath.

The Gospel of Philip distinguishes itself from the others on this front. It has more unique words. It also has a different vocabulary, introducing the words Pharisatha, Echmoth, and Echamoth to our study. Some would see that as an indicator that the Gospel of Philip strongly qualifies as Gnostic, being from a somewhat different religious tradition than the Judaism of Roman-occupied Judea that we see in the writings we have reviewed prior to this point. 

Sunday, September 15, 2019

The Gospel of John: Preserved Phrases or Loan Words from Other Languages

Again, this continues the research into loan-words or phrases from Hebrew or Aramaic that are preserved in the various gospels, here reviewing the Gospel of John. Once again, Strong's numbers are provided as a tool and a reference, and usage is given for the first instance of each word.

Amen: G281 (sometimes translated "truly", or "verily" in older translations)
Joh 1:51 And he said to him, Truly, truly, I say to you, Hereafter you shall see heaven open, and the angels of God ascending and descending upon the Son of man.
Joh 3:3
Joh 3:5
Joh 3:11
Joh 5:19
Joh 5:24
Joh 5:25
Joh 6:26
Joh 6:32
Joh 6:47
Joh 6:53
Joh 8:34
Joh 8:51
Joh 8:58;
Joh 10:1
Joh 10:7
Joh 12:24
Joh 13:16
Joh 13:20
Joh 13:21
Joh 13:38
Joh 14:12
Joh 16:20
Joh 16:23
Joh 21:18
Joh 21:25

Golgotha: G1115
Joh 19:17 And bearing his cross he went to a place called the place of a skull, which is called in Hebrew Golgotha

Cephas: G2786
Joh 1:42 And he brought him to Jesus. And when Jesus beheld him, he said, You are Simon the son of Jonah: you shall be called Cephas, which is by interpretation, A stone.

Levite: G3019
Joh 1:19 And this is the record of John, when the Jews sent priests and Levites from Jerusalem to ask him, Who are you?

Messiah: G3323
Joh 1:41 He first found his own brother Simon, and said to him, "We have found the Messiah", which is, being interpreted, the Christ.
Joh 4:25

Passover: G3957
Joh 2:13 And the Jewish passover was at hand, and Jesus went up to Jerusalem,
Joh 2:23
Joh 6:4
Joh 11:55
Joh 12:1
Joh 13:1
Joh 18:28
Joh 18:39
Joh 19:14

Rabbi: G4461
Joh 1:38 Then Jesus turned, and saw them following, and said to them, What are you seeking? They said to him, Rabbi, (which is to say, being interpreted, Master,) where are you staying?
Joh 1:49
Joh 3:2
Joh 3:26
Joh 4:31
Joh 6:25
Joh 9:2
Joh 11:8

Sabbath: G4521
Joh 5:9 And immediately the man was made whole, and picked up his bed, and walked: and that day was the sabbath.
Joh 5:10
Joh 5:16
Joh 5:18
Joh 7:22
Joh 7:23
Joh 9:14
Joh 9:16
Joh 19:31
Joh 20:1
Joh 20:19

Satan: G4567
Joh 13:27 And after the bread, Satan entered into him. Then Jesus said to him, "What you are going to do, do quickly."

Hosanna: G5614
Joh 12:13 Took branches of palm trees, and went out to meet him, and cried, Hosanna: Blessed is the King of Israel who comes in the name of the Lord.

Sunday, September 08, 2019

The Gospel of Luke: Preserved Phrases or Loan Words from Other Languages

This post continues the research into loan-words or phrases from Hebrew or Aramaic that are preserved in the various gospels, here reviewing the Gospel of Luke. Again, Strong's numbers are provided with individual words as a tool to facilitate if anyone wishes to double-check the research. And again, the usage is given for the first instance of each word, and the references only for later uses.

Individual words

Amen: G281 (May be translated "truly", or in older translations "verily")
Luk 4:24 And he said, "Truly I say to you, No prophet is accepted in his own country."
Luk 12:37
Luk 13:35
Luk 18:17
Luk 18:29
Luk 21:32
Luk 23:43
Luk 24:53 

Levite: G3019
Luk 10:32  And likewise a Levite, when he was there, came and looked on him, and passed by on the other side. 
Mammon: G3126
Luk 16:9 I tell you, use worldly mammon to gain friends for yourselves, so that when it is gone, you will be welcomed into eternal homes.
Luk 16:11
Luk 16:13
Passover: G3957
Luk 2:41  Now his parents went to Jerusalem every year at the feast of the passover.
Luk 22:1
Luk 22:7
Luk 22:8
Luk 22:11
Luk 22:13
Luk 22:15
Sabbath: G4521
Luk 4:16  And he came to Nazareth, where he had been brought up: and, as his custom was, he went into the synagogue on the sabbath day, and stood up to read.
Luk 4:31
Luk 6:1
Luk 6:2
Luk 6:5
Luk 6:6
Luk 6:7
Luk 6:9
Luk 13:10
Luk 13:14
Luk 13:15
Luk 13:16
Luk 14:1
Luk 14:3
Luk 14:5
Luk 18:12
Luk 23:54
Luk 23:56
Luk 24:1
Satan: G4567
Luk 4:8  And Jesus answered and said unto him, Get behind me, Satan: for it is written, You shall worship the Lord your God, and him only shall you serve.
Luk 10:18
Luk 11:18
Luk 13:16
Luk 22:3
Luk 22:31

Notes

In Luke, the variety of foreign words in the text is relatively small compared to Matthew or Mark. Despite the relatively small foreign vocabulary, Luke does introduce one foreign word not previously seen in Matthew or Mark: "Levite", which occurs in the parable of the Good Samaritan. Luke's text includes no multi-word phrases in another language as are seen in Matthew's and Mark's text.

Sunday, September 01, 2019

The Gospel of Mark: Preserved Phrases or Loan Words from Other Languages

This continues the research into phrases or loan words from Semitic languages in texts that are called gospels, both inside and outside the New Testament. Again, when we're considering an individual word, the Strong's number is included as a tool in case it is helpful to anyone wanting to check the results.

Individual words

Abba: G5
Mar 14:36  And he said, Abba, Father, all things are possible for you; take away this cup from me: nevertheless not what I will, but what you will.

Amen: G281 (may be translated at times: "truly", or in older translations "verily")
Mar 3:28  Truly I say to you, All sins shall be forgiven to the sons of men, and any blasphemies they shall blaspheme
Mar 6:11
Mar 8:12
Mar 9:1
Mar 9:41
Mar 10:15
Mar 10:29
Mar 11:23
Mar 12:43
Mar 13:30
Mar 14:9
Mar 14:18
Mar 14:25
Mar 14:30
Mar 16:20* In a portion of the text that is not part of the oldest manuscripts
Boanerges:  G993
Mar 3:17 And James the son of Zebedee, and John the brother of James; and he called them Boanerges, that is, The sons of thunder
Golgotha: G1115
Mar 15:22  And they brought him to the place Golgotha, which is, being interpreted, The place of a skull.

Corban:  G2878
Mar 7:11  But you say, If a man shall say to his father or mother, It is Corban, that is to say, a gift devoted to God
Ephphatha: G2188
Mar 7:34  And looking up to heaven, he sighed, and said to him, Ephphatha, that is, Be opened.
Bartimaeus: G924
Mar 10:46  And they came to Jericho: and as he went out of Jericho with his disciples and a great number of people, blind Bartimaeus, the son of Timaeus, sat by the highway side begging.
Passover: G3957
Mar 14:1  After two days was the feast of the passover, and of unleavened bread: and the chief priests and the scribes sought how they might take him by stealth, and put him to death.
Mar 14:12
Mar 14:14
Mar 14:16
Rabbi: G4461
Mar 9:5  And Peter answered and said to Jesus, Rabbi, it is good for us to be here: and let us make three shelters; one for you, and one for Moses, and one for Elijah. 
Mar 11:21
Mar 14:45
Sabbath: G4521
Mar 1:21  And they went into Capernaum; and then on the sabbath day he entered into the synagogue, and taught.
Mar 2:23
Mar 2:24
Mar 2:27
Mar 2:28
Mar 3:2
Mar 3:4
Mar 6:2
Mar 16:1
Mar 16:2
Mar 16:9 
Satan: G4567
Mar 1:13  And he was there in the wilderness forty days, tempted by Satan; and was with the wild beasts; and the angels ministered unto him.
Mar 3:23
Mar 3:26
Mar 4:15
Mar 8:33 
Hosanna: G5614
Mar 11:9  And those who went before, and that followed, shouted, saying, Hosanna; Blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord
Mar 11:10



Phrases
Mar 5:41  And he took the little girl by the hand, and said to her, Talitha cumi; which is, being interpreted, Little girl, I say to you, get up.
Mar 15:34  And at the ninth hour Jesus cried with a loud voice, saying, Eloi, Eloi, lama sabachthani? which is, being interpreted, My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me? 

Summary and Possible Emerging Patterns

In Mark, we see some individual words preserved in the text that we did not see in Matthew such as abba and ephphatha. For whole phrases, the one phrase preserved in Matthew is also preserved in Mark: Jesus' cry from the cross. We also find a separate phrase preserved in Mark: Talitha cumi.

As has happened several times when beginning a new phase of this research, the early review of the data suggests new avenues of research. I am curious whether something represents a pattern: If I make a distinction between narrative and dialogue in the text, it seems there are different patterns in those two types of writing within the text. Times when a name is explained have generally fallen to the narrator. Other uses of foreign words and phrases seem to be concentrated in the dialogue. On reflection that's not surprising. When reviewing the dialogue, I'd also be interested to see the breakdown between times when a foreign word is preserved specifically in quotes spoken by Jesus in the text, or times when such a word is preserved when spoken by someone else.

And in a sad but unrelated note on modern English (or modern culture), the word "dialogue" is not in the dictionary used by the spell-checker here, showing up as just as foreign to the spell-checker as ephphatha. It recognizes Abba, but probably for reasons having more to do with pop-culture than Hebrew culture or Biblical studies.